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論文

論文
Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo ; Yachida, Takahiro ; Enami, Miki ; Goto, Yoshikazu ; Ohta, Keisuke
出版情報: Resuscitation.  81  pp.1492-1498,  2010-11-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30223
概要: Review: The interval between collapse and emergency call influences the prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). To reduce the interval, it is essential to identify the causes of delay. Methods: Basal data were collected prospectively by fire departments from 3746 OHCAs witnessed or recognised by citizens and in which resuscitation was attempted by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2008. EMTs identified the reasons for call delay by interview. Results: The delay, defined as an interval exceeding 2 min (median value), was less frequent in the urban region, public places and for witnessed OHCAs. Delay was more frequent in care facilities and for elderly patients and OHCAs with longer response times. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that urban regions, care facilities and arrest witnesses are independent factors associated with delay. The ratio of correctable causes (human factors) was high at care facilities and at home, compared with other places. Calling others was a major reason for delay in all places. Performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other treatments was another major reason at care facilities. Large delay, defined as an interval exceeding 5 min (upper-quartile value), was an independent factor associated with a low 1-year survival rate. Conclusion: The incidence of correctable causes of delay is high in the community. Correction of emergency call manuals in care facilities and public relation efforts to facilitate an early emergency call may be necessary. Basic life support (BLS) education should be modified to minimise delays related to making an emergency call. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 続きを見る
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論文
Takei, Yutaka ; Enami, Miki ; Yachida, Takahiro ; Ohta, Keisuke ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Journal of Anesthesia.  24  pp.715-726,  2010-10-01.  日本麻酔学会 = Japan Society of Anesthesiology / Springer Verlag (Germany)
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30224
概要: PURPOSE: It is not clear whether advanced airway management (AAM) with an endotracheal tube (ET) by paramedics may improve the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) compared with the use of a bag-valve-mask device (BVMD) and other AAM devices. METHODS: We analyzed 2,586 adult cases of OHCA without administration of adrenaline, witnessed or recognized by citizens in subjects transported to hospital by paramedics between 1 July 2004 and 31 March 2008 in Ishikawa, Japan, to determine whether AAM with an ET used under limited indication criteria may improve the outcome of OHCA. RESULTS: The airway was managed with an ET in 263 cases, other AAM devices in 660 cases, and a BVMD in 1,539 cases. The AAM failed or was discontinued in 124 cases, which were excluded from the analysis. The incidence of sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was significantly higher in cases of AAM with an ET (30%) than in AAM with other devices (20.2%) and in the standard procedure with a BVMD (21.3%). The AAM with an ET did not significantly affect 1-year survival. Multiple regression analysis indicated that tracheal intubation (odds ratio = 1.503, 95% confidence interval 1.081-2078), but not patient management by paramedics qualified for ET use, was an independent factor associated with sustained ROSC. CONCLUSION: When subjects with difficult airway are excluded, tracheal intubation according to the limited indication criteria and well-organized protocol in Japan may improve the short-term outcome of OHCA of noncardiac origin. A large prospective study is needed to determine the general effects of tracheal intubation on the long-term outcome of OHCA with disturbed ventilation. 続きを見る
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論文
Enami, Miki ; Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo ; Yachida, Takahiro ; Ohta, Keisuke ; Maeda, Testuo ; Goto, Yoshikazu
出版情報: Resuscitation.  82  pp.577-583,  2011-05-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30222
概要: Purpose of study: To determine the effects of ageing and training experience on attitude towards performing basic life support (BLS). Methods: We gave a questionnaire to attendants of the courses for BLS or safe driving in authorised driving schools. The questionnaire included questions about participants' backgrounds. The questionnaire explored the participant's willingness to perform BLS in four hypothetical scenarios related to early emergency call, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under their own initiative, telephone-assisted compression-only CPR and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), respectively. Results: There were significant differences in gender, occupation, residential area, experience of BLS training, and knowledge of AED use among the young (17-29. y, N=6122), middle-aged (30-59. y, N=827) and elderly (>59. y, N=15,743) groups. In all four scenarios, the proportion of respondents willing to perform BLS was lowest in the elderly group. More respondents in the elderly group were willing to follow the telephone-assisted instruction rather than performing CPR under their own initiative. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed ageing as an independent factor related to negative attitude in all scenarios. Gender, occupation, resident area, experience with BLS training and knowledge about AED use were other independent factors. Prior BLS training did not increase willingness to make an emergency call. Conclusion: The aged population has a more negative attitude towards performing BLS. BLS training should be modified to help the elderly gain confidence with the essential elements of BLS, including making early emergency calls. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 続きを見る
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論文
Enami, Miki ; Takei, Yutaka ; Goto, Yoshikazu ; Ohta, Keisuke ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  81  pp.562-567,  2010-05-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30225
概要: Background: There is no study regarding the influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline renewal on citizen's attitude towards all basic life support (BLS) actions. Methods and results: We conducted a questionnaire survey to new driver licence applicants who participated in the BLS course at driving schools either before (January 2007 to April 2007) or after (October 2007 to April 2008) the revision of the textbook. Upon completion of the course, participants were given a questionnaire concerning willingness to participate in CPR, early emergency call, telephone-assisted chest compression and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). After the revision, the proportions of positive respondents to use of AED as well as to all the four scenarios significantly increased from 2331/3564 to 3693/5156 (odds ratio (OR)=1.34) and from 1889/3443 to 3028/5126 (OR=1.18), respectively. However, the new guideline slightly but significantly augmented the unwillingness to make an early call (236/3568 vs. 416/5283, OR = 0.83). Approximately 95% of respondents were willing to follow the telephone-assisted instruction of chest compression, while approximately 85% were eager to perform CPR on their own initiative. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the results of mono-variate analysis, and identified previous CPR training, sex, rural area and student as other significant factors relating to attitude. Conclusions: Future guidelines should emphasise the significance and benefit of early call in relation to telephone-assisted instruction of CPR or chest compression. The course instructors should be aware of the backgrounds of participants as to how this may relate to their willingness to participate. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 続きを見る
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論文
Nishi, Taiki ; Maeda, Tetsuo ; Takase, Keiko ; Kamikura, Takahiro ; Tanaka, Yoshio ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  84  pp.154-161,  2013-02-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/31993
概要: Review: An increased number of rescuers may improve the survival rate from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). The majority of OHCAs occur at home and are handled by family members. Materials and methods: Data from 5078 OHCAs that were witnessed by citizens and unwitnessed by citizens or emergency medical technicians from January 2004 to March 2010 were prospectively collected. The number of rescuers was identified in 4338 OHCAs and was classified into two (single rescuer (N = 2468) and multiple rescuers (N = 1870)) or three (single rescuer, two rescuers (N = 887) and three or more rescuers (N = 983)) groups. The backgrounds, characteristics and outcomes of OHCAs were compared between the two groups and among the three groups. Results: When all OHCAs were collectively analysed, an increased number of rescuers was associated with better outcomes (one-year survival and one-year survival with favourable neurological outcomes were 3.1% and 1.9% for single rescuers, 4.1% and 2.0% for two rescuers, and 6.0% and 4.6% for three or more rescuers, respectively (p = 0.0006 and p < 0.0001)). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of multiple rescuers is an independent factor that is associated with one-year survival (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.539 (1.088-2.183)). When only OHCAs that occurred at home were analysed (N = 2902), the OHCAs that were handled by multiple rescuers were associated with higher incidences of bystander CPR but were not associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In summary, an increased number of rescuers improves the outcomes of OHCAs. However, this beneficial effect is absent in OHCAs that occur at home. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
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論文
Shiraishi, Yosuke ; Okajima, Masaki ; Sai, Yoshimichi ; Miyamoto, Kenichi ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.  40  pp.442-449,  2012-03-01.  Australian Society of Anaesthetists
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/31992
概要: Pharmaceutical agents directed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be eliminated during haemodiafiltration, not only by diffusion and ultrafiltration, but also by adsorption onto haemofilters. The latter may be affected by the binding of agents to serum albumin. The present study therefore investigated the affinity of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents (teicoplanin, linezolid, vancomycin) for haemofilters and the pharmacokinetic properties of teicoplanin during haemodiafiltration. Linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin were first screened for their in vitro affinity for three different kinds of filter membranes: polysulfone, polyacrylonitrile and polymethylmethacrylate. Only teicoplanin showed significant filter-binding activity. An in vitro haemodiafiltration circulation model was then developed that incorporated a one-litre beaker containing Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution with/without human albumin (0 or 3 g/dl) as an artificial plasma. Teicoplanin (initial concentration 50 μg/ml, representing the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) resulting from a typical clinical dosage) was circulated throughout the beaker. Teicoplanin concentrations in the 'plasma' and ultrafiltrate were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. In the screening experiment, teicoplanin was predominantly adsorbed onto polysulfone and polymethylmethacrylate membranes. Furthermore, teicoplanin was primarily eliminated by adsorption onto these filters during in vitro haemodiafiltration. Albumin significantly reduced both haemodiafiltration clearance and the adsorption-dependent elimination, although there were complex but significant interactions between albumin and the filter membrane. Elimination of teicoplanin in an in vitro haemodiafiltration model was largely due to adsorption onto polysulfone and polymethylmethacrylate haemofilters. Future clinical studies should likely be designed to evaluate present recommendations of teicoplanin dosages in patients on haemodiafiltration. 続きを見る
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論文
Tanaka, Yoshio ; Taniguchi, Junro ; Wato, Yukihiro ; Yoshida, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  83  pp.1235-1241,  2012-10-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30445
概要: Review: In 2007, the Ishikawa Medical Control Council initiated the continuous quality improvement (CQI) project for telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR), which included instruction on chest-compression-only CPR, education on how to recognise out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with agonal breathing, emesis and convulsion, recommendations for on-line or redialling instructions and feedback from emergency physicians. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this project on the incidence of bystander CPR and the outcomes of OHCAs. Materials and methods: The baseline data were prospectively collected on 4995 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs, which were recognised or witnessed by citizens rather than emergency medical technicians during the period of February 2004 to March 2010. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR, as well as the outcomes of the OHCAs, was compared before and after the project. Results: The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR significantly increased after the project (from 42% to 62% and from 41% to 56%, respectively). The incidence of failed telephone-CPR due to human factors significantly decreased from 30% to 16%. The outcomes of OHCAs significantly improved after the projects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the CQI project is one of the independent factors associated with one-year (1-Y) survival with favourable neurological outcomes (odds ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-2.76). Conclusions: The CQI project for telephone-CPR increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcome of OHCAs. A CQI project appeared to be essential to augment the effects of telephone-CPR. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
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論文
Tanaka, Yoshio ; Yamada, Hiroshi ; Tamasaku, Shuji ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: American Journal of Emergency Medicine.  31  pp.1466-1471,  2013-10-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/35643
概要: Purposes: Ambulance response time is a major factor associated with survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs); the fast emergency vehicle pre-emption system (FAST™) aids response time by controlling traffic signals. This eight-year observational study investigated whether FAST™ implementation reduced response times and improved OHCA outcomes. Methods: Data was prospectively collected from 1161 OHCAs that were not witnessed by emergency medical technicians from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2011. The study took place in Kanazawa city, where ambulances without FAST™ (non-FAST™-equipped) were being progressively replaced by new FAST™-equipped ambulances. OHCA data, including the response times recorded in seconds, were collected and compared between the FAST™-equipped and non-FAST™-equipped ambulances. OHCA outcomes were subsequently compared in the subgroup of OHCAs managed by emergency medical technicians without tracheal intubation or epinephrine administration. The primary end-point of this study was one-year (1-Y) survival. Results: The median response time significantly differed between the FAST™-equipped and non-FAST™-equipped groups at 327 and 381 s, respectively. The 1-Y survival rates were 7.0% in the FAST™-equipped group and 2.8% in the non-FAST™-equipped group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the dispatch of a FAST™-equipped ambulance was an independent factor for 1-Y survival (adjusted odds ratio = 3.077, 95% confidence interval = 1.180-9.350). Conclusions: The FAST™ implementation significantly reduced ambulance response times and improved OHCA outcomes in Kanazawa city. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
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論文
Takei, Yutaka ; Nishi, Taiki ; Matsubara, Hiroki ; Hashimoto, Masaaki ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  85  pp.492-498,  2014-04-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/39096
概要: Aims: To identify the factors associated with good-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR). Methods: Data were prospectively collected from 553 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) managed with BCPR in the absence of emergency medical technicians (EMT) during 2012. The quality of BCPR was evaluated by EMTs at the scene and was assessed according to the standard recommendations for chest compressions, including proper hand positions, rates and depths. Results: Good-quality BCPR was more frequently confirmed in OHCAs that occurred in the central/urban region (56.3% [251/446] vs. 39.3% [42/107], p= 0.0015), had multiple rescuers (31.8% [142/446] vs. 11.2% [12/107], p< 0.0001) and received bystander-initiated BCPR (22.0% [98/446] vs. 5.6% [6/107], p< 0.0001). Good-quality BCPR was less frequently performed by family members (46.9% [209/446] vs. 67.3% [72/107], p= 0.0001), elderly bystanders (13.5% [60/446] vs. 28.0% [30/107], p= 0.0005) and in at-home OHCAs (51.1% [228/446] vs. 72.9% [78/107], p< 0.0001). BCPR duration was significantly longer in the good-quality group (median, 8 vs. 6. min, p= 0.0015). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that multiple rescuers (odds ratio. = 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.6), bystander-initiated BCPR (2.7, 1.1-7.3), non-elderly bystanders (1.9, 1.1-3.2), occurrence in the central region (2.1, 1.3-3.3) and duration of BCPR (1.1, 1.0-1.1) were associated with good-quality BCPR. Moreover, good-quality BCPR was initiated earlier after recognition/witness of cardiac arrest compared with poor-quality BCPR (3 vs. 4. min, p= 0.0052). The rate of neurologically favourable survival at one year was 2.7 and 0% in the good-quality and poor-quality groups, respectively (p= 0.1357). Conclusions: The presence of multiple rescuers and bystander-initiated CPR are predominantly associated with good-quality BCPR. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 続きを見る
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論文
Kamikura, Takahisa ; Iwasaki, Hose ; Myojo, Yasuhiro ; Sakagami, Satoru ; Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  96  pp.37-45,  2015-11-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/43901
概要: Aim: To assess the benefit of immediate call or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Methods: Of 952,288 OHCAs in 2005-2012, 41,734 were bystander-witnessed cases without prehospital involvement of physicians but with bystander CPR (BCPR) on bystander's own initiative. From those OHCAs, we finally extracted the following three call/BCPR groups: immediate Call + CPR (N= 10,195, emergency call/BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, absolute call-BCPR time interval = 0 or 1. min), immediate Call-First (N= 1820, emergency call placed at 0 or 1 min after witness, call-to-BCPR interval = 2-4. min), immediate CPR-First (N= 5446, BCPR initiated at 0 or 1. min after witness, BCPR-to-call interval = 2-4 min). One-month neurologically favourable survivals were compared among the groups. Critical comparisons between Call-First and CPR-First groups were made considering arrest aetiology, age, and bystander-patient relationship after confirming the interactions among variables. Results: The overall survival rates in immediate Call + CPR, Call-First, and CPR-First groups were 11.5, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively without significant differences (p= 0.543). Subgroup analyses by multivariate logistic regression following univariate analysis disclosed that CPR-first group is more likely to survive in subgroups of noncardiac aetiology (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.01; 1.39-2.98) and of nonelderly OHCAs (1.38; 1.09-1.76). Conclusions: Immediate CPR-first action followed by an emergency call without a large delay may be recommended when a bystander with sufficient skills to perform CPR witnesses OHCAs in nonelderly people and of noncardiac aetiology. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.<br />Embargo Period 12 months 続きを見る