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論文

論文
Tanaka, Yoshio ; Maeda, Tetsuo ; Kamikura, Takahisa ; Nishi, Taiki ; Omi, Wataru ; Hashimoto, Masaaki ; Sakagami, Satoru ; Inaba , Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  86  pp.74-81,  2015-01-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/40723
概要: Aim: To investigate whether the bystander-patient relationship affects bystander response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and patient outcomes depending on the time of day. Methods: This population-based observational study in Japan involving 139,265 bystander-witnessed OHCAs (90,426 family members, 10,479 friends/colleagues, and 38,360 others) without prehospital physician involvement was conducted from 2005 to 2009. Factors associated with better bystander response [early emergency call and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR)] and 1-month neurologically favourable survival were assessed. Results: The rates of dispatcher-assisted CPR during daytime (7:00-18:59) and nighttime (19:00-6:59) were highest in family members (45.6% and 46.1%, respectively, for family members; 28.7% and 29.2%, respectively, for friends/colleagues; and 28.1% and 25.3%, respectively, for others). However, the BCPR rates were lowest in family members (35.5% and 37.8%, respectively, for family members; 43.7% and 37.8%, respectively, for friends/colleagues; and 59.3% and 50.0%, respectively, for others). Large delays (≥5. min) in placing emergency calls and initiating BCPR were most frequent in family members. The overall survival rate was lowest (2.7%) for family members and highest (9.1%) for friends/colleagues during daytime. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of bystander relationship on survival was significant only during daytime [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for survival from daytime OHCAs with family as reference were 1.51 (1.36-1.68) for friends/colleagues and 1.23 (1.13-1.34) for others]. Conclusions: Family members are least likely to perform BCPR and OHCAs witnessed by family members are least likely to survive during daytime. Different strategies are required for family-witnessed OHCAs. 続きを見る
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論文

論文
Kamikura, Takahisa ; Iwasaki, Hose ; Myojo, Yasuhiro ; Sakagami, Satoru ; Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  96  pp.37-45,  2015-11-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/43901
概要: Aim: To assess the benefit of immediate call or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Methods: Of 952,288 OHCAs in 2005-2012, 41,734 were bystander-witnessed cases without prehospital involvement of physicians but with bystander CPR (BCPR) on bystander's own initiative. From those OHCAs, we finally extracted the following three call/BCPR groups: immediate Call + CPR (N= 10,195, emergency call/BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, absolute call-BCPR time interval = 0 or 1. min), immediate Call-First (N= 1820, emergency call placed at 0 or 1 min after witness, call-to-BCPR interval = 2-4. min), immediate CPR-First (N= 5446, BCPR initiated at 0 or 1. min after witness, BCPR-to-call interval = 2-4 min). One-month neurologically favourable survivals were compared among the groups. Critical comparisons between Call-First and CPR-First groups were made considering arrest aetiology, age, and bystander-patient relationship after confirming the interactions among variables. Results: The overall survival rates in immediate Call + CPR, Call-First, and CPR-First groups were 11.5, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively without significant differences (p= 0.543). Subgroup analyses by multivariate logistic regression following univariate analysis disclosed that CPR-first group is more likely to survive in subgroups of noncardiac aetiology (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.01; 1.39-2.98) and of nonelderly OHCAs (1.38; 1.09-1.76). Conclusions: Immediate CPR-first action followed by an emergency call without a large delay may be recommended when a bystander with sufficient skills to perform CPR witnesses OHCAs in nonelderly people and of noncardiac aetiology. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.<br />Embargo Period 12 months 続きを見る
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論文

論文
Nishi, Taiki ; Kamikura, Takahisa ; Funada, Akira ; Myojo, Yasuhiro ; Ishida, Tetsuya ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Resuscitation.  98  pp.27-34,  2016-01-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/44228
概要: Aim: Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) impacts the rates of bystander CPR (BCPR) and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This study aimed to elucidate whether regional variations in indexes for BCPR and emergency medical service (EMS) may be associated with OHCA outcomes. Methods: We conducted a population-based observational study involving 157,093 bystander-witnessed, resuscitation-attempted OHCAs without physician involvement between 2007 and 2011. For each index of BCPR and EMS, we classified the 47 prefectures into the following three groups: advanced, intermediate, and developing regions. Nominal logit analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression including OHCA backgrounds was employed to examine the association between neurologically favourable 1-month survival, and regional classifications based on BCPR- and EMS-related indexes. Results: Logit analysis including all regional classifications revealed that the number of BLS training course participants per population or bystander's own performance of BCPR without DA-CPR was not associated with the survival. Multivariable logistic regression including the OHCA backgrounds known to be associated with survival (BCPR provision, arrest aetiology, initial rhythm, patient age, time intervals of witness-to-call and call-to-arrival at patient), the following regional classifications based on DA-CPR but not on EMS were associated with survival: sensitivity of DA-CPR [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for advanced region; those for intermediate region, with developing region as reference, 1.277 (1.131-1.441); 1.162 (1.058-1.277)]; the proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR [1.749 (1.554-1.967); 1.280 (1.188-1.380)]. Conclusions: Good outcomes of bystander-witnessed OHCAs correlate with regions having higher sensitivity of DA-CPR and larger proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.<br />Embargo Period 12 months 続きを見る
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論文

論文
Hirose, Keiko ; Enami, Miki ; Matsubara, Hiroki ; Kamikura, Takahisa ; Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo
出版情報: Journal of Intensive Care.  2  pp.28-,  2014-04-24.  BioMed Central Ltd.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/46173
概要: Background: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of basic life support (BLS) training on willingness of single rescuers to make emergency calls during out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with no available help from others.Methods: A cross-over questionnaire survey was conducted with two questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered before and after two BLS courses in fire departments. One questionnaire included two scenarios which simulate OHCAs occurring in situations where help from other rescuers is available (Scenario-M) and not available (Scenario-S). The conventional BLS course was designed for multiple rescuers (Course-M), and the other was designed for single rescuers (Course-S).Results: Of 2,312 respondents, 2,218 (95.9%) answered all questions and were included in the analysis. Although both Course-M and Course-S significantly augmented willingness to make early emergency calls not only in Scenario-M but also in Scenario-S, the willingness for Scenario-M after training course was significantly higher in respondents of Course-S than in those of Course-M (odds ratio 1.706, 95% confidential interval 1.301-2.237). Multiple logistic regression analysis for Scenario-M disclosed that post training (adjusted odds ratio 11.6, 95% confidence interval 7.84-18.0), age (0.99, 0.98-0.99), male gender (1.77, 1.39-2.24), prior BLS experience of at least three times (1.46, 1.25-2.59), and time passed since most recent training during 3 years or less (1.80, 1.25-2.59) were independently associated with willingness to make early emergency calls and that type of BLS course was not independently associated with willingness. Therefore, both Course-M and Course-S similarly augmented willingness in Scenario-M. However, in multiple logistic regression analyses for Scenario-S, Course-S was independently associated with willingness to make early emergency calls in Scenario-S (1.26, 1.00-1.57), indicating that Course-S more efficiently augmented willingness. Moreover, post training (2.30, 1.86-2.83) and male gender (1.26, 1.02-1.57) were other independent factors associated with willingness in Scenario-S.Conclusions: BLS courses designed for single rescuers with no help available from others are likely to augment willingness to make early emergency calls more efficiently than conventional BLS courses designed for multiple rescuers. © 2014 Hirose et al. 続きを見る