1.

論文

論文
Cui, Hong ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Du, Wa ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Zhang, Wei ; Asano, Masahide ; Shibamoto, Toshishige ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  132  pp.1205-1214,  2013-11-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/35640
概要: Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, the role of S1P2 in vascular barrier integrity and anaphylaxis is not well understood. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) generates nitric oxide to mediate vascular leakage, compromising survival in patients with anaphylaxis. We recently observed that endothelial S1P2 inhibits Akt, an activating kinase of eNOS. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that endothelial S1P2 might suppress eNOS, exerting a protective effect against endothelial barrier disruption and anaphylaxis. Methods: Mice deficient in S1P2 and eNOS underwent antigen challenge or platelet-activating factor (PAF) injection. Analyses were performed to examine vascular permeability and the underlying mechanisms. Results: S1pr2 deletion augmented vascular leakage and lethality after either antigen challenge or PAF injection. PAF injection induced activation of Akt and eNOS in the aortas and lungs of S1pr2-null mice, which were augmented compared with values seen in wild-type mice. Consistently, PAF-induced increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in the aorta was enhanced in S1pr-null mice. Genetic Nos3 deletion or pharmacologic eNOS blockade protected S1pr2-null mice from aggravation of barrier disruption after antigen challenge and PAF injection. ECs isolated from S1pr2-null mice exhibited greater stimulation of Akt and eNOS, with enhanced nitric oxide production in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate or PAF, compared with that seen in wild-type ECs. Moreover, S1pr2-deficient ECs showed more severe disassembly of adherens junctions with augmented S-nitrosylation of β-catenin in response to PAF, which was restored by pharmacologic eNOS blockade. Conclusion: S1P2 diminishes harmful robust eNOS stimulation and thereby attenuates vascular barrier disruption, suggesting potential usefulness of S1P2 agonists as novel therapeutic agents for anaphylaxis. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 続きを見る
2.

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論文
Aki, Sho ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: Journal of Biological Chemistry.  290  pp.6086-6105,  2015-03-06.  American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/41360
概要: We have recently demonstrated that the PI3K class II-α isoform (PI3K-C2α), which generates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphates, plays crucial roles in angiogenesis, by analyzing PI3K-C2α knock-out mice. The PI3K-C2α actions are mediated at least in part through its participation in the internalization of VEGF receptor-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1P1 and thereby their signaling on endosomes. TGFβ, which is also an essential angiogenic factor, signals via the serine/threonine kinase receptor complex to induce phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3). SARA (Smad anchor for receptor activation) protein, which is localized in early endosomes through its FYVE domain, is required for Smad2/3 signaling. In the present study, we showed that PI3K-C2α knockdown nearly completely abolished TGFβ1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). PI3K-C2α was necessary for TGFβ-induced increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphates in the plasma membrane and TGFβ receptor internalization into the SARA-containing early endosomes, but not for phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate enrichment or localization of SARA in the early endosomes. PI3K-C2α was also required for TGFβ receptor-mediated formation of SARA-Smad2/3 complex. Inhibition of dynamin, which is required for the clathrin-dependent receptor endocytosis, suppressed both TGFβ receptor internalization and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. TGFβ1 stimulated Smad-dependent VEGF-A expression, VEGF receptor-mediated EC migration, and capillary-like tube formation, which were all abolished by either PI3K-C2α knockdown or a dynamin inhibitor. Finally, TGFβ1-induced microvessel formation in Matrigel plugs was greatly attenuated in EC-specific PI3K-C2α-deleted mice. These observations indicate that PI3K-C2α plays the pivotal role in TGFβ receptor endocytosis and thereby Smad2/3 signaling, participating in angiogenic actions of TGFβ. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. 続きを見る
3.

論文

論文
Cui, Hong ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Du, Wa ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Zhang, Wei ; Asano, Masahide ; Shibamoto, Toshishige ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  132  pp.1205-1214,  2013-11-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/36259
概要: Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, the role of S1P 2 in vascular barrier integrity and anaphylaxis is not well understood. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) generates nitric oxide to mediate vascular leakage, compromising survival in patients with anaphylaxis. We recently observed that endothelial S1P2 inhibits Akt, an activating kinase of eNOS. Objective We tested the hypothesis that endothelial S1P 2 might suppress eNOS, exerting a protective effect against endothelial barrier disruption and anaphylaxis. Methods Mice deficient in S1P2 and eNOS underwent antigen challenge or platelet-activating factor (PAF) injection. Analyses were performed to examine vascular permeability and the underlying mechanisms. Results S1pr2 deletion augmented vascular leakage and lethality after either antigen challenge or PAF injection. PAF injection induced activation of Akt and eNOS in the aortas and lungs of S1pr2-null mice, which were augmented compared with values seen in wild-type mice. Consistently, PAF-induced increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in the aorta was enhanced in S1pr-null mice. Genetic Nos3 deletion or pharmacologic eNOS blockade protected S1pr2-null mice from aggravation of barrier disruption after antigen challenge and PAF injection. ECs isolated from S1pr2-null mice exhibited greater stimulation of Akt and eNOS, with enhanced nitric oxide production in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate or PAF, compared with that seen in wild-type ECs. Moreover, S1pr2-deficient ECs showed more severe disassembly of adherens junctions with augmented S-nitrosylation of β-catenin in response to PAF, which was restored by pharmacologic eNOS blockade. Conclusion S1P2 diminishes harmful robust eNOS stimulation and thereby attenuates vascular barrier disruption, suggesting potential usefulness of S1P2 agonists as novel therapeutic agents for anaphylaxis. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 続きを見る
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論文
Qia, Xun ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Murakawa, Tomomi ; Wang, Fei ; Oyama, Osamu ; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Du, Wa ; Sugimoto, Naotoshi ; Yatomi, Yutaka ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: European Journal of Pharmacology.  634  pp.121-131,  2010-05-01.  Elsevier BV
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/23922
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />Therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy for treating ischemia. The lysophospholipid m ediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts on vascular endothelial cells to stimulate migration and tube formation, and plays the critical role in developmental angiogenesis. We developed poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA)-based S1P-containing microparticles (PLGA-S1P), which are biodegradable and continuously release S1P, and studied the effects of PLGA-S1P on neovascularization in murine ischemic hindlimbs. Intramuscular injections of PLGA-S1P stimulated blood flow in C57BL/6 mice dose-dependently, with repeated administrations at a 3-day interval, rather than a single bolus or 6-day interval, over 28. days conferring the optimal stimulating effect. In Balb/c mice that exhibit limb necrosis and dysfunction due to retarded blood flow recovery, injections of PLGA-S1P stimulated blood flow with alleviation of limb necrosis and dysfunction. PLGA-S1P alone did not induce edema in ischemic limbs, and rather blocked vascular endothelial growth factor-induced edema. PLGA-S1P not only increased the microvessel densities in ischemic muscle, but promoted coverage of vessels with smooth muscle cells and pericytes, thus stabilizing vessels. PLGA-S1P stimulated Akt and ERK with increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in ischemic muscle. The effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methylester, showed that PLGA-S1P-induced blood flow stimulation was partially dependent on nitric oxide. Injections of PLGA-S1P also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and the recruitment of CD45-, CD11b- and Gr-1-positive myeloid cells, which are implicated in post-ischemic angiogenesis, into ischemic muscle. These results indicate that PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of S1P is a potentially useful therapeutic modality for stimulating post-ischemic angiogenesis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. 続きを見る
5.

論文

論文
Takuwa, Yoh ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Takuwa, Noriko
出版情報: BBA - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids.  781  pp.483-488,  2008-09-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/11734
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />The plasma lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is produced exclusively by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) 1 and SPHK2 in vivo, and plays diverse biological and pathophysiological roles by acting largely through three members of the G protein-coupled S1P receptors, S1P1, S1P2 and S1P3. S1P1 expressed on endothelial cells mediates embryonic vascular maturation and maintains vascular integrity by contributing to eNOS activation, inhibiting vascular permeability and inducing endothelial cell chemotaxis via Gi-coupled mechanisms. By contrast, S1P2, is expressed in high levels on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and certain types of tumor cells, inhibiting Rac and cell migration via a G12/13-and Rho-dependent mechanism. In rat neointimal VSMCs, S1P1 is upregulated to mediate local production of platelet-derived growth factor, which is a key player in vascular remodeling. S1P3 expressed on endothelial cells also mediates chemotaxis toward S1P and vasorelaxation via NO production in certain vascular bed, playing protective roles for vascular integrity. S1P3 expressed on VSMCs and cardiac sinoatrial node cells mediates vasopressor and negative chronotropic effect, respectively. In addition, S1P3, together with S1P2 and SPHK1, is suggested to play a protective role against acute myocardial ischemia. However, our recent work indicates that overexpressed SPHK1 is involved in cardiomyocyte degeneration and fibrosis in vivo, in part through S1P activation of the S1P3 signaling. We also demonstrated that exogenously administered S1P accelerates neovascularization and blood flow recovery in ischemic limbs, suggesting its usefulness for angiogenic therapy. These results provide evidence for S1P receptor subtype-specific pharmacological intervention as a novel therapeutic approach to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
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論文
Du, Wa ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Gonda, Koichi ; Sugihara, Kazushi ; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi ; Asano, Masahide ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: Cancer Research.  70  pp.772-781,  2010-01-15.  American Association for Cancer Research
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/21765
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis by acting through the Gi-coupled chemotactic receptor S1P1. Here, we report that the distinct receptor S1P2 is responsible for mediating the G12/13/Rho-dependent inhibitory effects of S1P on Akt, Rac, and cell migration, thereby negatively regulating tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. By using S1P2LacZ/+ mice, we found that S1P2 was expressed in both tumor and normal blood vessels in many organs, in both endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as in tumor-associated, CD11b-positive bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC). Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma cells implanted in S1P2-deficient (S1P2-/-) mice displayed accelerated tumor growth and angiogenesis with enhanced association of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. S1P2-/- ECs exhibited enhanced Rac activity, Akt phosphorylation, cell migration, proliferation, and tube formation in vitro. Coinjection of S1P2-/- ECs and tumor cells into wild-type mice also produced a relative enhancement of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. S1P2-/- mice were also more efficient at recruiting CD11b-positive BMDCs into tumors compared with wild-type siblings. Bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that S1P2 acted in BMDCs to promote tumor growth and angiogenesis. Our results indicate that, in contrast to endothelial S1P1, which stimulates tumor angiogenesis, S1P 2 on ECs and BMDCs mediates a potent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a novel therapeutic tactic for anticancer treatment. ©2010 AACR. 続きを見る
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論文
Wang, Fei ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Inoki, Isao ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Du, Wa ; Qi, Xun ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Gonda, Koichi ; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko ; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke ; Nishiuchi, Takumi ; Sugimoto, Naotoshi ; Yatomi, Yutaka ; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi ; Asano, Masahide ; Kinoshita, Makoto ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: The journal of clinical investigation.  120  pp.3979-3995,  2010-11-01.  American Society for Clinical Investigation
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/25352
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid that has pleiotropic effec ts in a variety of cell types including ECs, SMCs, and macrophages, all of which are central to the development of atherosclerosis. It may therefore exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the role of the S1P receptor S1PR2 in atherosclerosis by analyzing S1pr2–/– mice with an Apoe–/– background. S1PR2 was expressed in macrophages, ECs, and SMCs in atherosclerotic aortas. In S1pr2–/–Apoe–/– mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 months, the area of the atherosclerotic plaque was markedly decreased, with reduced macrophage density, increased SMC density, increased eNOS phosphorylation, and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines compared with S1pr2+/+Apoe–/– mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated a major role for macrophage S1PR2 in atherogenesis. S1pr2–/–Apoe–/– macrophages showed diminished Rho/Rho kinase/NF-κB (ROCK/NF-κB) activity. Consequently, they also displayed reduced cytokine expression, reduced oxidized LDL uptake, and stimulated cholesterol efflux associated with decreased scavenger receptor expression and increased cholesterol efflux transporter expression. S1pr2–/–Apoe–/– ECs also showed reduced ROCK and NF-κB activities, with decreased MCP-1 expression and elevated eNOS phosphorylation. Pharmacologic S1PR2 blockade in S1pr2+/+Apoe–/– mice diminished the atherosclerotic plaque area in aortas and modified LDL accumulation in macrophages. We conclude therefore that S1PR2 plays a critical role in atherogenesis and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. 続きを見る
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論文
Tanahashi, Hiroshi ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki
出版情報: Neuroscience Letters.  439  pp.293-297,  2008-07-18.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/10014
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />In a previous study, we reported that Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilin-2 interac ts with a LIM-domain protein, namely, DRAL/FHL2/SLIM3. In this study, we investigated whether DRAL modifies the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown DRAL in COS7 and HEK293 cells that stably overexpress APP695. We found that the knockdown was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of secreted α-secretase-cleaved APP and the membrane-bound C-terminal fragment C83 and an increase in the amount of secreted β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) from the cells. We also found that in addition to a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-17, DRAL binds to ADAM-10. Thus, DRAL may be involved in the processing of APP through the α-secretase pathway. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
9.

論文

論文
Takuwa, Yoh ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Takuwa, Noriko
出版情報: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids.  1781  pp.483-488,  2008-09-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/11867
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />The plasma lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is produced exclusively by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) 1 and SPHK2 in vivo, and plays diverse biological and pathophysiological roles by acting largely through three members of the G protein-coupled S1P receptors, S1P1, S1P2 and S1P3. S1P1 expressed on endothelial cells mediates embryonic vascular maturation and maintains vascular integrity by contributing to eNOS activation, inhibiting vascular permeability and inducing endothelial cell chemotaxis via Gi-coupled mechanisms. By contrast, S1P2, is expressed in high levels on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and certain types of tumor cells, inhibiting Rac and cell migration via a G12/13-and Rho-dependent mechanism. In rat neointimal VSMCs, S1P1 is upregulated to mediate local production of platelet-derived growth factor, which is a key player in vascular remodeling. S1P3 expressed on endothelial cells also mediates chemotaxis toward S1P and vasorelaxation via NO production in certain vascular bed, playing protective roles for vascular integrity. S1P3 expressed on VSMCs and cardiac sinoatrial node cells mediates vasopressor and negative chronotropic effect, respectively. In addition, S1P3, together with S1P2 and SPHK1, is suggested to play a protective role against acute myocardial ischemia. However, our recent work indicates that overexpressed SPHK1 is involved in cardiomyocyte degeneration and fibrosis in vivo, in part through S1P activation of the S1P3 signaling. We also demonstrated that exogenously administered S1P accelerates neovascularization and blood flow recovery in ischemic limbs, suggesting its usefulness for angiogenic therapy. These results provide evidence for S1P receptor subtype-specific pharmacological intervention as a novel therapeutic approach to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 続きを見る
10.

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論文
Takashima, Shinichiro ; Sugimoto, Naotoshi ; Takuwa, Noriko ; Okamoto, Yasuo ; Yoshioka, Kazuaki ; Takamura, Masayuki ; Takata, Shigeo ; Kaneko, Shuichi ; Takuwa, Yoh
出版情報: Cardiovascular Research.  79  pp.689-697,  2008-09-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/12043
概要: 金沢大学医薬保健研究域医学系<br />Aims: The lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) activates G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to induce potent inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Rac activation and, thereby, chemotaxis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We explored the heterotrimeric G protein and the downstream mechanism that mediated S1P inhibition of Rac and cell migration in VSMCs. Methods and results: S1P inhibition of PDGF-induced cell migration and Rac activation in VSMCs was abolished by the selective S1P2 receptor antagonist JTE-013. The C-terminal peptides of Gα subunits (Gα-CTs) act as specific inhibitors of respective G protein-GPCR coupling. Adenovirus-mediated expression of Gα12-CT, Gα13-CT, and Gα q-CT, but not that of Gαs-CT or LacZ or pertussis toxin treatment, abrogated S1P inhibition of PDGF-induced Rac activation and migration, indicating that both G12/13 and Gq classes are necessary for the S1P inhibition. The expression of Gαq-CT as well as Gα12-CT and Gα13-CT also abolished S1P-induced Rho stimulation. C3 toxin, but not a Rho kinase inhibitor or a dominant negative form of Rho kinase, abolished S1P inhibition of PDGF-induced Rac activation and cell migration. The angiotensin II receptor AT1, which robustly couples to Gq, did not mediate either Rho activation or inhibition of PDGF-induced Rac activation or migration, suggesting that activation of Gq alone was not sufficient for Rho activation and resultant Rac inhibition. However, the AT1 receptor fused to Gα12 was able to induce not only Rho stimulation but also inhibition of PDGF-induced Rac activation and migration. Phospholipase C inhibition did not affect S1P-induced Rho activation, and protein kinase C activation by a phorbol ester did not mimic S1P action, suggesting that S1P inhibition of migration or Rac was not dependent on the phospholipase C pathway. Conclusion: These observations together suggest that S1P2 mediates inhibition of Rac and migration through the coordinated action of G 12/13 and Gq for Rho activation in VSMCs. © The Author 2008.. 続きを見る