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論文

論文
Enami, Miki ; Takei, Yutaka ; Inaba, Hideo ; Yachida, Takahiro ; Ohta, Keisuke ; Maeda, Testuo ; Goto, Yoshikazu
出版情報: Resuscitation.  82  pp.577-583,  2011-05-01.  Elsevier
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/30222
概要: Purpose of study: To determine the effects of ageing and training experience on attitude towards performing basic life support (BLS). Methods: We gave a questionnaire to attendants of the courses for BLS or safe driving in authorised driving schools. The questionnaire included questions about participants' backgrounds. The questionnaire explored the participant's willingness to perform BLS in four hypothetical scenarios related to early emergency call, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under their own initiative, telephone-assisted compression-only CPR and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), respectively. Results: There were significant differences in gender, occupation, residential area, experience of BLS training, and knowledge of AED use among the young (17-29. y, N=6122), middle-aged (30-59. y, N=827) and elderly (>59. y, N=15,743) groups. In all four scenarios, the proportion of respondents willing to perform BLS was lowest in the elderly group. More respondents in the elderly group were willing to follow the telephone-assisted instruction rather than performing CPR under their own initiative. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed ageing as an independent factor related to negative attitude in all scenarios. Gender, occupation, resident area, experience with BLS training and knowledge about AED use were other independent factors. Prior BLS training did not increase willingness to make an emergency call. Conclusion: The aged population has a more negative attitude towards performing BLS. BLS training should be modified to help the elderly gain confidence with the essential elements of BLS, including making early emergency calls. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 続きを見る
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論文

論文
Rachmawati, Mayu Winnie ; Yoshida, Naoko ; Tsuboi, Hirohito ; Kimura, Kazuko ; 吉田, 直子 ; 坪井, 宏仁 ; 木村, 和子
出版情報: Pharmacology and Pharmacy.  5  pp.524-531,  2014-05.  Scientific Research Publishing
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2297/00053631
概要: 医薬保健研究域薬学系<br />Objective: To investigate prescription of antibiotics by dental practitioners at a dental teaching hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and to establish whether it conforms to major guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adult outpatients’ medical records was conducted in order to scrutinize antibiotic prescriptions. The results were compared with recommendations in four published guidelines. Results: Dental practitioners prescribed a wide range of antibiotics to treat 121 diagnoses. Amoxicillin (78.8%) was most commonly prescribed, followed by clindamycin (9.9%), metronidazole (5.0%), and lincomycin (2.1%). Among all prescriptions, 79.5% were for generic antibiotics. The most common diagnoses were dental pulp gangrene followed by dental pulp necrosis (26.7% and 8.8%, respectively). According to guidelines-1 through-4, the percentages of antibiotic prescriptions that were evaluated as appropriate for the reported diagnosis were 15.1%, 7.2%, 7.5%, and 16.3%, respectively. However, 9.9%, 84.0%, 83.7% and 67.8% of prescriptions could not be classified as appropriate or inappropriate because the respective guidelines neither listed the antibiotic nor gave statement regarding appropriate indications. Conclusion: Our results suggest that significant inappropriate antibiotic prescribing occurred at a dental teaching hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, according to major antibiotics guidelines. However, the four guidelines failed to list some antibiotics, failed to list indications for prescription in some cases, and were inconsistent in their recommendations. There is a need to introduce specific institutional guidelines. Our findings should be helpful for developing public health policy guidelines to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescribing at dental hospitals. 続きを見る